Moscow is the Russian Federation's largest city and capital. It is the biggest city in Europe and one of the biggest urban areas worldwide. Moscow is situated on the Moscow River in the central Federal District. The city has a humid continental climate with warm and slightly humid summers and winters that are long and cold with snow. The population of Moscow was 10,382,754 according to the census in 2002. Residents of Moscow are called Muscovites.
The city served as the capital of the former Grand Duchy of Moscow, Russian Empire, Soviet Union, and Tsardom of Russia.
Moscow serves as a chief cultural, economic, educational, financial, political, religious, and transportation center of Russia and the world. Moscow was recognized as the most expensive city for foreign employees worldwide in 2008, for the third consecutive year. Moscow has many educational and scientific institutions and sports facilities.
Moscow has an intricate transportation system with one of the busiest metro systems in the world, 9 railroad terminals, and 3 international airports.
The architecture in Moscow is world-famous. The Kremlin and Red Square in Moscow is acknowledged as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Shukhoy Tower is currently threatened by destruction. It is number one on UNESCO's Endangered Buildings list and there is an international campaign to save the building. The Ostankino Tower is the ranked the third in the tallest freestanding structures worldwide and is Eurasia's tallest freestanding structure. Saint Basil's Cathedral, the Seven Sisters, and the Cathedral of Christ the Savior are also famous sites. Save Europe's Heritage, Moscow Architecture Preservation Society, and other organizations are trying to prevent the destruction of historic buildings and alert the international public of the situation.
One of Moscow's famous are museums is the Tretyakov Gallery. The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, the Polytechnical Museum, and the State Historical Museum of Russia are also notable museums in Moscow. Moscow is also the center for the performing arts of Russia with 132 cinemas, 24 concert halls, and 93 cinemas. The Malyi Theatre, Moscow Art Theatre, and the Bolshoi Theatre are popular theatres in the city. The State Central Concert Hall Rossia is famous for estrade and ballet performances. The Moscow International House of Music is famous for its classical music performances. Moscow also has two large circuses, the Moscow Circus on Tsvetnoy Boulevard and the Moscow State Circus.
Moscow has 96 parks and 18 gardens. The Central Park of Culture and Rest is a famous park that is 170 acres along the bank of the Moskva River. The Neskuchniy Garden is 101 acres and Moscow's oldest park. Izmaylovsky Park is one the world's biggest urban parks with 5.92 square miles. It is six times bigger than New York's Central Park.
Other popular attractions are Tsytsin Main Botanical Garden of Academy of Sciences, which is the largest botanical garden in Europe, and the Moscow Zoo.
The 1980 Summer Olympics were hosted in Moscow.